This TarawÃ®h begins from the last quarter of the ninth Juz (beginning of SÃ»rah AnfÃ¢l) and concludes at the end of the tenth Juz (verse 93 of SÃ»rah Taubah).
AllÃ¢h opens SÃ»rah AnfÃ¢l by discussing the distribution of the spoils of war. AllÃ¢h says, â€œThe spoils of war are for AllÃ¢h and His messenger.â€ (i.e. RasulullÃ¢h would distribute oneâ€‘fifth of the booty among those who were deserving). Thereafter AllÃ¢h invokes man saying, â€œSo fear AllÃ¢h, correct your mutual relations and obey AllÃ¢h and His NabÃ® if you are believers.â€ (verse 1).
AllÃ¢h then described the true Muâ€™minÃ®n when He says, â€œThe Muâ€™minÃ®n are those whose hearts tremble when AllÃ¢h is mentioned, whose faith [ImÃ¢n] increases when His verses are recited to them and they trust only in their Rabb. They are those who establish SalÃ¢h and spend from what We have provided for them. These are the true Muâ€™minÃ®n! For them shall be ranks by their Rabb, forgiveness and bountiful sustenance.â€ (verses 2-4)
AllÃ¢h then mentions the assistance that He rendered to the Muslims during the Battle of Badr when He sent thousands of angels to fight with them. AllÃ¢h also cast fear into the hearts of the KuffÃ¢r despite their overwhelming numbers. AllÃ¢h then declares that there awaits a severe punishment for those who oppose AllÃ¢h and RasulullÃ¢h.
Thereafter, AllÃ¢h exhorts the Muâ€™minÃ®n to fight in JihÃ¢d with fervour. AllÃ¢h says, â€œOh you who believe, when you meet the disbelievers in battle, do not turn your backs to themâ€ (verse 15). AllÃ¢h says that the person who flees from the battlefield because of cowardice shall draw AllÃ¢hâ€™s wrath upon himself. Towards the end of the Juz, AllÃ¢h says, â€œFight them until no anarchy [kufr] exists and all religion (worship) is for AllÃ¢h. So if they desist (from kufr and shirk), then indeed AllÃ¢h is watchful over what they do. If they turn away, then know that AllÃ¢h is your Protecting Friend. What a terrific Friend and what a terrific Helper!â€™ (verses 39 and 40).
End of the ninth Juz
Beginning of tenth Juz
The tenth Juz commences with mention of booty. AllÃ¢h declares, â€œKnow that from whatever spoils of war that you acquire, a fifth of it shall be for AllÃ¢h, His messenger, the relatives, the poor, the orphans and the travellersâ€ (verse 41). The remaining four*-fifths will be distributed among the MujÃ¢hidÃ®n [the Muslim soldiers who fought in the battle].
AllÃ¢h then discusses certain details about the Battle of Badr. AllÃ¢h addresses the Muâ€™minÃ®n saying, â€œObey AllÃ¢h and His NabÃ® and do not fall into dispute with each other, for then you will become cowardly and your strength will be lost. Be patient, for verily AllÃ¢h is with the patient ones.â€ (verse 46)
AllÃ¢h commands the Muslims further: â€œPrepare against them (your enemies) whatever forces of strength you can muster…â€ (verse 60). In addition to amassing weapons and battle provisions, Muslims must always have conviction in AllÃ¢hâ€™s assistance. AllÃ¢h then assures the Muslims: â€œWhatever you may spend in AllÃ¢hâ€™s way will be given to you in full and you will not be oppressed.â€ (verse 60)
Addressing RasulullÃ¢h SallallÃ¢hu â€˜alayhi wasallam it, AllÃ¢h says, â€œOh NabÃ® SallallÃ¢hu â€˜alayhi wasallam, exhort the Muâ€™minÃ®n to fight.â€ (verse 65). AllÃ¢h informs the Muslims that if they are righteous, resolute and trust firmly in AllÃ¢h, they will be able to vanquish an army larger than themselves.
Prisoners of war should not be captured merely with the intention of earning ransom money. Towards the end of the SÃ»rah, Muslims are urged to keep religious objectives in mind when migrating or when waging JihÃ¢d. Earning the booty must never be the objective. AllÃ¢h outlines a principle of inheritance at the end of SÃ»rah AnfÃ¢l when He says, â€‘Those who are relatives are closer to each other in AllÃ¢hâ€™s Book. (verse 75)
The next SÃ»rah is called SÃ»rah Taubah because it contains mention of the Taubah that AllÃ¢h accepted from those who failed to participate in the Battle of TabÃ»k. It is also called SÃ»rah BarÃ¢â€™ah because AllÃ¢h absolves Himself and RasulullÃ¢h SallallÃ¢hu â€˜alayhi wasallam from what the KuffÃ¢r do (the Arabic word â€œBarÃ¢â€™ahâ€ means â€œto absolve of blameâ€).
This SÃ»rah mentions the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah which the MushrikÃ®n of Makkah eventually broke. AllÃ¢h declares, â€œAllÃ¢h and His NabÃ® have absolved themselves of those MushrikÃ®n with whom you have made a treaty.â€ Consequently, â€œThe proclamation from AllÃ¢h and His NabÃ® (was made) on the day of the greater Hajj that verily AllÃ¢h and His NabÃ® are absolved of the MushrikÃ®n.â€ (verses 1 and 3)
After this declaration, all MushrikÃ®n were banned from entering the HarÃ¢m and from performing TawÃ¢f naked. The Muslims are urged not to take even their closest relatives as friends if they are KuffÃ¢r. AllÃ¢h also advises RasulullÃ¢h SallallÃ¢hu â€˜alayhi wasallam not to accept the lame excuses of the MunÃ¢fiqÃ®n (hypocrites) when they are reluctant to fight in JihÃ¢d. Their excuses are all false and the oaths that they take along with the excuses are all false. AllÃ¢h assures RasulullÃ¢h SallallÃ¢hu â€˜alayhi wasallam that the oaths of the sinners and MunÃ¢fiqÃ®n are hollow and should be ignored because these people were never Muslims. AllÃ¢h warns RasulullÃ¢h SallallÃ¢hu â€˜alayhi wasallam that the MunÃ¢fiqÃ®n will desert him as soon as they get the opportunity. AllÃ¢hâ€™s curse is on the MunÃ¢fiqÃ®n men and women because they are alike. AllÃ¢h also forbade RasulullÃ¢h SallallÃ¢hu â€˜alayhi wasallam from performing the janÃ¢zah [funeral] SalÃ¢h for the MunÃ¢fiqÃ®n.
This SÃ»rah also details the recipients of zakÃ¢h as:
1. The poor
2. Slaves who are buying their freedom
3. The destitute
4. Those in debt
5. The collectors of zakÃ¢h
6. Those in â€œAllÃ¢hâ€™s pathâ€
7. Those who need to be inclined to IslÃ¢m and
In brief, SÃ»rah Taubah contains the following subject matter:
1. Certain battles and related incidents.
2. The treaties with the MushrikÃ®n and the declaration of exoneration from all KuffÃ¢r and MushrikÃ®n.
3. Prohibition of fighting during the days of Hajj.
4. Restriction of entry into the Haram for nonâ€‘Muslims.
5. The command for the Ahlul KitÃ¢b to either accept IslÃ¢m or pay the jizya.
6. Reproaching those who were negligent in participating in JihÃ¢d.
7. Specifying the recipients of zakÃ¢h.
8. Identifying the MunÃ¢fiqÃ®n and the Muâ€™minÃ®n.
May AllÃ¢h grant us all the TaufÃ®q to practise on the injunctions detailed in this SÃ»rah. Ã‚mÃ®n.
End of the Tenth Juz